How Do Fast-flying Aircraft Avoid Overheating?

How do fast-flying aircraft avoid overheating?

I would like to answer with a focus on the SR-71, since I happen to have a book that gives details on its design.Ben Rich was the lead of the propulsion and thermodynamics group for the SR-71, and Kelly Johnson's successor as head of the Skunkworks for later programs. In the "Faster Than a Speeding Bullet" chapter of his memoir Skunkworks (pg 203 in the first paperback edition, 1994), he writes:. I volunteered some unsolicited advice about how we could use a softer titanium that began to lose its strength at 550 degrees. My idea was to paint the airplane black. From my college days I remembered that a good heat absorber was also a good heat emitter and would actually radiate away more heat than it would absorb through friction. I calculated that black paint would lower the wing temperatures 35 degrees by radiation. But Kelly [Johnson, head of Skunkworks and the then-A12 project] snorted impatiently and shook his head. Overnight, however, he apparently had second thoughts."On the black paint," he said, "you were right about the advantages and I was wrong." He handed me a quarter. It was a rare win. So Kelly approved my idea of painting the airplane black, and by the time our first prototype rolled out the airplane became known as the Blackbird.The chapter goes on into greater detail on various unique material selections:stainless steel hydraulic linesHastelloy X ejector flapsElgiloy control cablesGold-plated plumbing linesTitanium screws and rivetsSpecial rubber for the landing gear wheels, which were then inflated with nitrogenJet fuel with a higher flash point (JP-7)Pg 205:The fuel acted as an internal coolant. All the heat built up inside the aircraft was transferred to the fuel by heat exchangers. We designed a smart valve -- a special valve that could sense temperature changes -- to supply only the hottest fuel to the engines and keep the cooler fuel to cool the retracted landing gear and avionics.Pg 207:We designed the cockpit air-conditioning to bleed air off the engine compressor and dump it through a fuel air cooler, then through an expansion turbine, into the cabin at a frigid minus 40 degrees F, which lowered the ovenlike 200-degree cockpit to a balmy Southern California beach day.So I guess there's three generic design principles embodied here:

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Why aren't all CPUs 'overclocked' as a factory default? [duplicate]

Overclocking produces more heat and makes the computer less stable. In order to overclock, you have to have an upgraded fan and/or water cooling system

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What human activitys cause global warming, or is the whole idea just a big scam?

The oil we use emits green house gases which destroys our ozone layer allowing more heat from the sun to affect earth making our planet warmer. We need to find a renewable energy resource ASAP!

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Does a woman's body have more heat than a man's body?

Have you worn a sleeveless dress in the winter? It's freaking Cold! Body temp varies a little from person to person but on average 98.6, gender doesnt make a difference

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Why does my face turn red when I work out, run, play baseball - basketball?

Since you are working out, you need to obtain more oxygen and release more heat at certain areas of your body. The blood carries more oxygen to those areas and also releases heat at the same time

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how do you get more heat from a wood burning fireplace with gas log-lighter?

I have never heard of a gas log fireplace in which you could also burn wood. You need to get a hold of an owners manual and determine if in fact you can also burn wood. You should be able to install a blower on it, or at least put a fan somewhere close to help circulate the warm air.

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What do u think the reason he used sesame oil to cook MONGOLIAN TOFU?

IT CAN TAKE MORE HEAT WITHOUT BURNING

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Do planetary nebulae give off heat? If so, how much?

Yes planetary nebulae give off more heat (infrared) than Jupiter, but they have a much larger surface area, so it is often not possible to detect nor measure the heat. Jupiter is likely most infrared energy given off after The Sun, in our solar system

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Does the Sun Provide More Heat Or More Light?
Does the Sun provide more heat or more light?Depends on where you are located at. Sometimes more heat, and sometimes more light— — — — — —What to Wear, Drink, Eat, & Do if You Want to Beat the HeatThere's a lot to do when the weather is right: family picnics, a homerun derby on the softball field, endless hours on the golf course, or lounging in your backyard hammock. However, too much fun in the sun can be dangerous. Excessive heat exposure can cause dehydration. Dehydration, in turn, can cause dangerous conditions, such as: • heat stroke, which is also called sunstroke Combating the toll of the heat and sun on your body will keep you healthy and active all summer long. Try a few of these simple precautions, and you will still be going strong as the leaves start to turn. What to wear in the heat The way you dress can go a long way toward keeping you comfortable when you are outside in the heat. Make sure you bring the following items: The right type of clothing A loose white linen shirt is not just fashionably conscious - it's also intelligent for hot, sunny days. Dark clothing absorbs more heat, and tight clothes do not let sweat - your body's natural cooling system - evaporate. Cotton is another good fabric to opt for in the heat. Choose light colors over darker ones if your primary goal is staying cool. There's a difference between the type of clothing that keeps you cool in the heat and the type of clothing that keeps you protected from ultraviolet (UV) rays. If protection from the sun is your goal, choose dark or bright colors instead of white or pastels. They absorb more heat, which prevents the rays from penetrating your skin. Dry clothes are more protective than wet clothes. Tightly woven clothes, or synthetic fibers, such as polyester and rayon, provide more sun protection than loosely woven clothes. You can even take it one step further and invest in sun-protective clothing. Sun-protective fabric uses special dyes and chemicals to block harmful UV rays. Sun-protective items, like clothing, are given an ultraviolet protection factor (UPF) rating based on how much UV radiation they allow to penetrate the skin. If a product has a UPF of 15, around 6.7 percent (or 1/15) of the sun's rays will reach you. A UPF rating of 15 is generally considered good. However, an item must have a UPF of at least 30 to receive the Skin Cancer Foundation's Seal of Recommendation. Sunglasses are chic and functional. They prevent UV rays from scorching your corneas and will protect your eyes for many more summers to come. According to the American Academy of Ophthalmology, you should pick sunglasses that block 99 to 100 percent of UVA and UVB rays. A hat is a smart and practical summer fashion choice. Throwing on a wide-brimmed hat prevents UV rays from hitting the sensitive spots on your face, and it keeps your skin looking wrinkle-free. The Skin Cancer Foundation recommends that brims and brills be at least 3 inches wide (or 2.5 inches for babies and toddlers). Nothing knocks good days off a summer calendar like a nasty sunburn. When outdoors, use sunscreen with a sun protection factor (SPF) of at least 30. Use a higher-rated, waterproof sunscreen if you will be poolside or out on the beach. Some ingredients that may be particularly effective against sun damage and burns include: Do not forget to cover areas that burn easily: the nose, ears, shoulders, and back of the neck. Just like how sunscreen protects the rest of your skin, a lip balm with SPF protection blocks out the sun and keeps in moisture for your lips - great for a day on the lake or while you are working on that summer romance. The heat makes you sweat, which cools you down. However, that also means you are constantly losing fluid. Do not wait until you are thirsty! Drink water throughout the day to prevent dehydration or over exhaustion. Use the color of your urine to guide whether you are hydrated enough - the clearer, the better. All-natural juice without added sugar not only provides hydration, but it also has important nutrients to keep you active and nourished in hot weather. Vitamin C is just one of them. Check the label on the juice bottle and make sure it says "100 percent juice with no sugar added." While an ice-cold cocktail - complete with a little paper umbrella - might sound good on the beach, it wo not be as refreshing to your body. That's because alcohol only dehydrates you more. If you can not barbecue without a brew, drink a bottle of water between each alcoholic beverage to stay hydrated. Like alcohol, caffeine also has a reputation for being dehydrating. However, caffeine should be fine to consume in moderate amounts, even in the heat. Did you know? Coffee may be just as hydrating as water, at least according to a small of male coffee drinkers. The study was split into short two trials. In one trial, the participants received nearly 3.5 cups of coffee a day. In the other trial, they received water. At the end of the study, the researchers did not observe any significant differences in metrics that would signal dehydration, such as total body water or 24 hour urine volume. Where to find relief from the sun If you live in an area where summer heat can become dangerous, pay close attention to any heat-related warnings. When it's dangerous, stay inside with the A/C or fan going. If it's not cool enough at home, find a cooling station, usually set up at public libraries and other buildings. If you must be outside, keep your activities close to a shady spot. It can provide enough of a cooldown to keep you safe. Even a small drop in temperature can make a big difference. When it's hot, and you are active, stay close to restaurants, convenience stores, or any other place that can offer cold temperatures and beverages, should you need them in an emergency. If you are at the beach or pool, the cool water offers great relief from the heat.
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