How to Design More Efficient AC / DC Power Supply

Power is like an insurance policy - you know you need it, but you'd rather never use it. Similarly, your next generation of electronic products are inseparable from the power supply. On the other hand, the power supply is different from the insurance policy, because in the past 20 years, the insurance policy has been increasing the price, while the power supply is getting smaller and smaller, the power is getting higher and higher, and the cost is getting lower and lower. The trend of reducing the size of the power supply to allow more space for other functions of the system will continue. Moreover, the power supply must comply with the existing standard format to avoid system redesign.

For AC / DC "target ="_ blank "> for AC / DC power supply, what drives this trend is not a new breakthrough in technology, but good design and innovative combination of the advantages of various processes and technologies to develop power supply with higher than average performance. This paper will discuss the common 100w-200w AC / DC power supply design, which focuses on the combination of various schemes to design the power supply with the smallest shape and the lowest cost, and achieve the highest efficiency and application flexibility.

Let's first talk about several main objectives of design. First, the power supply must be as small as possible to leave more space for other functions of the system. Second, the higher the efficiency of the power supply, the better. In practice, the power supply is not the most energy consuming, but the microprocessor, but the power supply still needs to further improve its efficiency, because the higher the efficiency, the smaller the heat sink required, so as to further save system space. For 100w-200w power supply, it is unrealistic to achieve 90% efficiency. For every 1% increase in the efficiency of high-power power supply, the heat can be reduced by 10%, and the cooling degree required by the power supply will be greatly different. Third, of course, cost is always the most important factor, whether in terms of raw material cost or manufacturing complexity. Simple design is an important factor. Finally, consider functionality. Control and alarm signals, current sharing with similar equipment and maintaining stable performance under various AC input conditions are very important.

Let's take a look at the AC / DC power supply shown in Figure 1 below. Several methods here can minimize the size and cost on the premise of ensuring performance and function.

Figure 1: steps to reduce the shape of AC / DC power supply

Input filter. Using a two-order filter can minimize the power supply shape and achieve high common mode and differential noise reduction. If you stack components vertically, you can save board space and improve cooling.

Power factor correction circuit (PFC). As the price of silicon carbide diode has decreased in the past two years, it has become possible to use this product in power supply. Because of the reverse current characteristic, the silicon carbide diode does not need a buffer circuit, so 5-6 components can be saved. In addition, silicon carbide diodes can generally improve the efficiency by 1%. If a step sensor is used, it can provide high sensing at high input lines and support the most possible flow density at low input lines. Using continuous induction mode (CCM) operation in the input range can maintain minimum peak conversion current and input filter requirements.

Main converter. Here, the switching loss can be basically eliminated by using the resonant topology. This not only improves the efficiency of the power supply, but also enables the power supply to use smaller heat sinks. In practical use, sometimes ceramic substrates can be used instead of metal substrates in power transistors. Ceramic substrates can reduce noise and therefore simplify the filtering process. This is because the heat sink has no capacitance coupled with the loss of switching MOSFETs. In addition, the creepage distance when using ceramic heat sink is shorter than that required by metal heat sink, which further saves board space.

Output rectifier. Here, switching MOSFETs are used instead of output rectifier diodes for synchronous rectification. This can greatly reduce power consumption and improve efficiency. For example, a diode with a forward voltage of 0.5V consumes 10W at 20A. If a MOSFET with an on resistance of 14mohm is used, the maximum power consumption is only 5.6W, which is 44% less than that of the diode. Here, a ceramic substrate can also be used to replace the traditional heat sink.

Control circuit. Semiconductor manufacturers have recently been developing integrated control circuits for power supplies. This can reduce the number of components, reduce manufacturing costs and save board space, even if the integrated circuit itself may be more expensive than discrete components. For example, IR1150 - this is a PFC chip. It is used as a single cycle control (OCC) device, which can greatly reduce the number of components while maintaining the performance of the power system. Similarly, the main converter voltage control, over-current protection, over-voltage protection and over-temperature protection can be carried out through the special application chip, and the output rectifier conversion can be controlled. In addition, the application flexibility can be improved through control channels such as synchronous single start sub source, suppression circuit to turn off the power supply with the help of logic control, "power state good" signal, standby converter control function and so on. When AC power is present, the standby converter can provide 5V output separately.

What Is a Recipe That Calls for Garlic and Onion and Only 1 Or 2 Other Ingredients?
What is a recipe that calls for garlic and onion and only 1 or 2 other ingredients?Spaghetti with butter and garlic. It's delish. Edit: You need to boil water in the microwave. Then add the pasta and cook until done. Be careful though.— — — — — —What other ingredients can I add to my grilled cheese sandwich to make it better?How is not not a reall grilled cheese? You have cheese that is being metled between to sliced of grilled bread correct? A grilled cheese can be made with ANY kind of cheese. As fasr as extras: Tomatoes Grilled Onions Avacado Bacon— — — — — —What other ingredients do they use for a Big Mac?The "secret sauce" is very similar to Thousand Island salad dressing in texture, consistancy and taste. Nobody can tell you exactly what is in it because it would no longer be a secret sauce if they did. In basic terms Thousand Island dressing is nothing more than a mixture of mayo, ketchup and pickle relish.— — — — — —What is a recipe for waffles which uses beer and whiskey for the batter (possibly as a substitute for other ingredients)?Hmmu2026. I wouldnu2019t put it in the batter, though. I would reduce it with maple syrup or honey. You could certainly make savory waffles with a beer batter, using a lighter beer that isnu2019t too bitter. Just substitute the milk in the recipe for an equal amount of beer. Add wild rice, walnuts and dried cranberries. Or some chopped herbs like chives, cilantro or rosemary. Chunks of provolone and crisp lardons of guanciale. Serve them with tomato jam or caramelized onions. I havenu2019t actually done any of this, but now Iu2019m thinking about it.What is a recipe for waffles which uses beer and whiskey for the batter (possibly as a substitute for other ingredients)?— — — — — —whats your fave kind ofMy favourite are sugar cookies with icing. They taste so good and you can have fun decorating them if you get different colours of food colouring and different cookie cutters. You can get them cheap from dollar stores in all sorts of Christmas-related shapes. Here's an easy recipe. Cookies: 3 cups flour 1 cup granulated sugar 1 1/2 tsp baking powder 1/2 tsp salt 1 cup soft butter 1 egg, slightly beaten 3 tbsp cream 1 tsp vanilla (can substitute almond extract) Icing 1/3 cup Crisco (transfat-free) or a 1/3 cup of softened butter 1 pound of confectioners sugar About 1/4 cup of milk 1 teaspoon of vanilla 1 Sift dry ingredients (use a real sifter), cut in butter and add other ingredients. Blend thoroughly; chill for several hours. 2 Break off a piece of dough the size of an orange and pat it flat in your hand. Using a rolling pin, roll on dough on floured board (best to use a 2/1 ration of flour/sugar - 4 Tbsp flour mixed with 2 Tbsp sugar) or between wax paper. (It helps if you flour both sides of the dought.) Roll out to about a 1/4 inch thickness. Cut out and put on silpat-lined or ungreased cookie sheet. Bake 5-8 minutes at 400 F. Remove the cookies from the oven as soon as you see them turning color at the base of the cookie. Let cool completely. 3 Mix icing ingredients together until smooth. Separate into different bowls, add food coloring to achieve various colors. Spread on cookies with a butter knife, use cake decorating piping equipment to add decorative accents. If you want the sprinkle type decorating candies to stick, brush the cookie with clear Karo syrup and then sprinkle. Makes 5 dozen cookies.— — — — — —distinguish the active ingredient from other ingredient in medicines?In modern medicines, the majority of ingredients in them are active ingredients. Otherwise, look them up on Wikipedia— — — — — —Hi Can I have a kim chee recipe?The main ingredient of kimchi is cabbage; no cabbage, no kimchi! And chili... lots of... fiery chili... Various recipes can have other added ingredients but the basic of true Korean kimchi is 'lacto fermented' cabbage. Lacto fermentation takes place when a vegetable / fruit is preserved in salt. If prepared carefully, no need to create a brine - try this: 1 chinese cabbage cut into strips 2 cloves garlic, pressed chili, as much as you can handle salt, best to use sea salt - depending on quality and freshness of veg, use between 0.5 and 1.5% of veg. weight in salt (i.e 100g cabbage = 0.5g to 1.5g) mix salt into cabbage, turn over and over, you should see / feel the cabbage beginning to 'sweat'; add other ingredients (add radishes, an apple for sweetness if you want, carrots into strips - remember to weigh ingredients and adjust amount of salt accordingly!) once veg are well mixed with salt, place in glass jar, place a cover on top of vegetables - i.e. the cover should be touching the vegetables, no merely closing off the jar. place a weight on top of the cover, so that the vegetables are pressed down; you must create the conditions for 'anaerobic fermentation', or in other words, the development of good bacteria who can only survive by 'brathing' in the absence of air! If your vegetables are not pressed down enough, and air is allowed in the mix, you risk you veggies rotting... leave jar at room temp for a couple / three days; press down on the weight / cover regularly, the juices should cover the veg mix. after this time, place in fridge and wait a few more days if you can... kimchi can keep for a long time, it just keeps on getting stronger, and make sure veg are always kept presssed down... it is excellent for digestive health Enjoy
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