Using a Ni-cd/MH Battery Charger on a Li-Ion Battery Pack?

Using a Ni-cd/MH battery charger on a Li-Ion battery pack?

Your Li-Ions will be toast if you do not use an Li-Ion charger. Unless it's for charging all batteries including Li-Ion it will permantly damage the Li-Ion battery. See the below link:

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When will Li-ion batteries replace lead acid batteries for starting power engines in automobiles?

Audi is already using a 48 volt Li-ion battery to start the engine.The setup also allows for regenerative braking (mild hybrid).Everything You Need To Know About The Upcoming 48-Volt Electrical Revolution In Cars.

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What could be the most promising battery breakthrough after the traditional Li-ion battery?

all-silicon anodes with metallic lithium and solid separator will get us very close to the theoretical maximum energy density for lithium batteries. We will keep getting incrementally closer to that over time.At some point, we will start to produce and store enough excess energy to produce hydrocarbons by capturing CO2 out of our environment. Fuel cell electric vehicles running on hydrogen, natural gas or ethanol/methanol will replace battery electric vehicles.The energy cycle for batteries is way more efficient then the fuel cells, but if we have excess energy to play with, the energy density of hydrocarbons is much better

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What are the main classes of Li-ion battery chemistries?

There are six commercially available Li-ion chemistries in various cell shapes and sizes. Here are their max/min charging voltage limits. If you only charge/discharge within their 90%/10% SOC (state of charge), then the cells' cycle-life can be maximized. If you do not plan to use the device for more than a few days, then just charge it up about 50-60% SOC. Only charge it up to 90-100% if you plan to use the device or vehicle right away. The high SOC means high voltage within the electrodes, and that will stress the chemistry in many ways to degrade longevity. More details of each chemistry can be found at this link: Types of Lithium-ion Batteries

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How should I charge my phone to retain its performance? Some sources say partial discharges work best, but what about the memory effect present on Li-ion batteries?

I guess this is a tl:dr answer again. The Battery University article referred to states specifically:'There is no memory and the battery does not need periodic full discharge cycles to prolong life." (Paragraph 9)Somewhere else on the site there's information about what battery 'memory " is all about.What everyone who asks about battery longevity misses are the other factors that cause battery damage and consequently shorter life spans. The manufacturers of batteries specify battery life spans by 'charge discharge cycles" under controlled conditions. So if you treat the battery outside these parameters you'll probably experience poor performance.Understand that charge/discharge cycles are FULL charge and discharge cycles. In other words fully charge to fully discharge state. If you charge the battery to its almost fully charge state (95 percent) and discharge partially (say 50 percent or less) then the full cycle has NOT been achieved. As a result you're effectively extending the lifetime of the battery. With smartphones the charging software/firmware has already taken this thinking into consideration by NOT allowing the battery to 'fully" charge and never 'fully" discharge. So the only choice the users have is NOT letting the phone discharge below 50-40 percent before putting the phone back on charge again. That way the battery never goes through a full cycle but only shorter partial cycles. The partial cycles will eventually accumulate to makeup the full cycle but if you think about the fact that 3 or 4 partial cycles over 3 days is effectively tripling the 'life span" of the battery over fully discharging the battery in only one day.Batteries catching fire/exploding are manufacturing defects that will occur regardless how sophisticated the user is trying to control the charging of the phone. If the battery is defective then it will fail. Finally, abusing the phone which also abuses the battery will cause premature failure. Using the phone in really hot or cold environments, excessive shock and running high cpu usage apps continuously all tax the life of the battery. The only battery conditioning is for calibration of the charging software. It is not to be used more than once or twice over the life of the battery so when you first receive your new phone and maybe a couple years later. Anymore than that is only needlessly shortening the life of your battery.Note that the brand new battery is only partial charged by the manufacturer for extending shelf life. A fully charged battery stored for extended periods of time (6 months or more) will degrade faster that a partially charged battery. So always fully charge the new battery before using. Conversely, discharge a battery partially before storing for more than 4 or 6 months. Hope this helps.

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Understand Rainbow,an Introduction to Rainbow
An Introduction to rainbowThe following have served as Masters of Magdalene College, Cambridge:Track listing of rainbowOriginal release7""Gravity's Rainbow" 2:37"The Bouncer" - 2:1512""Gravity's Rainbow" 2:37"Gravity's Rainbow" (Van She remix)"Gravity's Rainbow" (Nightmoves remix)"Gravity's Rainbow" (To My Boy remix)Re-releaseCD"Gravity's Rainbow" 2:36"Gravity's Rainbow" (Soulwax remix)7""Gravity's Rainbow" 2:36"Electrickery" produced by Erol AlkanEtched 7""Gravity's Rainbow" (Live in Glasgow)Service history of rainbowRoyal NavyRainbow was ordered as part of the Naval Defence Act of 1889. The vessel's keel was laid down by Palmers at Hebburn-On-Tyne in England on 30 December 1889. The cruiser was launched on 25 March 1891 and entered service in 1892, completing in January 1893.Rainbow served on the China Station in Hong Kong from 1895 to 1898 and in Malta from 1898 to 1899. She had an operating cost that was deemed excessive and between 1900 and 1909, saw very little service. Most of her operations at this time were closer to England. On 17 December 1901 she was commissioned at Devonport by Captain Thomas Young Greet for service in the cruiser squadron as an additional ship in home waters. She arrived back at Devonport from a tour of the Mediterranean with the squadron in April 1902, and took part in the fleet review held at Spithead on 16 August 1902 for the coronation of King Edward VII. Captain Charles Delabere Granville was appointed in command on 20 August 1902, and visited Souda Bay, Crete with other ships of the squadron for combined manoeuvres the following month. In October 1902 she was order back to Devonport for a refit. During the following years, she saw a severe reduction in fleet support due to her high operating cost, resulting in only minor modernization. Her crew rotation at this time was used as a training cycle. In 1904, the cruiser was restricted to harbour duty. In early 1909, the Admiralty ordered her decommissioned and placed on the inactive list.Royal Canadian NavyRainbow was presented to Canada in 1910, and was recommissioned HMCS Rainbow on 4 August. She and HMSNiobe were purchased from the Admiralty to be used as training ships at Royal Naval College of Canada in Halifax, Nova Scotia. During discussions on the type of cruisers to be sent to Canada, the Admiralty believed that the Apollo-class cruiser was the right choice. Canada paid $225,000 to acquire Rainbow, using outstanding money from the Marine and Fisheries Department. Before departing Great Britain, the ships required alterations to make them suitable for training. This required new heating systems, an up-to-date galley, the latest in Marconi wireless, the enlargement of the cadet gunroom and principal messes and the removal of the obsolete secondary armament.After commissioning, Rainbow was assigned to the west coast of Canada and was the first Canadian ship to sail around South America by the Strait of Magellan. After a 12-week passage of over 15,000 nautical miles (28,000km; 17,000mi) the cruiser arrived at Esquimalt, British Columbia on 7 November 1910. However, after commissioning, the status of the Canadian vessels and their ability to operate without direction from the Admiralty kept the new ships within coastal waters. This limited Rainbow to fisheries patrols until the matter was settled. In 1911, the cruiser had her 6-pounder guns removed and replaced with QF 12-pounder 12 cwt naval guns. Her service was quiet on the west coast, performing ceremonial duties, training and coastal fisheries patrol, notably apprehending the American fishing schooner Edrie in February 1913 for illegal fishing. When Niobe was laid up in 1913, her crew was sent west to fill out Rainbow's complement.In July 1914, Rainbow was called to Vancouver to assist with an international incident that was unfolding. Komagata Maru, a Japanese merchant ship filled with Sikh immigrants from India, challenged Canada's immigration law, designed to prevent immigration from South Asia. The ship's passengers were not permitted to disembark even though they were British subjects and the ship had sat in Vancouver harbour for two months. After the local authorities were rebuffed in their attempts to make the ship leave, Rainbow was ordered to intervene. After some discussion with the passengers, who had taken over the vessel, those aboard Komagata Maru agreed to leave Vancouver only when supplies for the ship were provided. Komagata Maru sailed from Vancouver on 23 July, escorted by Rainbow. Twenty of the passengers were killed upon returning to Budge Budge, India, after they resisted an attempt to forcibly return them to Punjab.When the First World War broke out, Rainbow was sent to cover the withdrawal of the British sloops, HMSShearwater and HMSAlgerine, which had been engaged protecting British citizens during civil unrest in Mexico. She was the largest armed ship the Allies had at the time in the western Pacific Ocean and was ordered to find and engage ships of the Imperial German Navy in the Pacific Ocean; in particular the light cruisers SMSLeipzig and SMSNurnberg. Rainbow never met either of these ships, although she missed Leipzig by only a day at San Francisco. The vessel remained the only source of protection for shipping in western North America until the arrival of the Japanese armoured cruiser Izumo. Following the destruction of the German Pacific Fleet at the Battle of the Falkland Islands in December 1914, the greatest threat to shipping in Pacific was considered to be armed German raiders and Rainbow was considered to be a match for all but the fastest. However, in 1915, her patrols were shortened due to the lack of a collier to refuel Rainbow while out on patrol.In early 1916, Rainbow was still patrolling the west coast of North America, performing reconnaissance on German shipping. On 23 April 1916, she seized the German-owned but American-flagged schooner Oregon and then followed that up by seizing the Mexican-flagged schooner Leonor on 2 May. The cruiser returned to Esquimalt with the prizes in tow on 30 May. In 1916 and early 1917, Rainbow was used to transport $140,000,000 in Russian gold bullion (valued in 1917 Canadian dollars), between Esquimalt and Vancouver. This money was placed in trust with Canada by the Russian government for protection due to the impending Russian revolution.The Royal Canadian Navy found that the cost of operating Rainbow was using up too much of the West Coast naval operations budget, and the crew of Rainbow were sorely needed on the Atlantic coast for the fight against the U-boats. Rainbow was decommissioned and deactivated on 8 May 1917, her crew sent east. On 5 July she was recommissioned in Esquimalt as a depot ship. She served in this capacity until 1 June 1920, when she was sold for scrap to a Seattle shipbroker.
Working Principle of Parallel Switching Power Supply
Figure 1-11-a is the simplest working principle diagram of parallel switching power supply, and figure 1-11-b is the waveform of output voltage of parallel switching power supply. In figure 1-11-a, UI is the working voltage of the switching power supply, l is the energy storage inductance, K is the control switch, and R is the load. In figure 1-11-b, UI is the input voltage of the switching power supply, uo is the output voltage of the switching power supply, up is the peak voltage of the switching power supply output, and UA is the average voltage of the switching power supply output.When the control switch K is turned on, the input power supply UI starts to energize the energy storage inductor L, the current flowing through the energy storage inductor L begins to increase, and the current also generates a magnetic field in the energy storage inductor; When the control switch K is turned from on to off, the energy storage inductor will generate back EMF, and the direction of the current generated by the back EMF is the same as that of the original current. Therefore, a high voltage will be generated on the load.During ton, the control switch K is turned on, and the voltage El at both ends of the energy storage filter inductance L is exactly equal to the input voltage UI, that is:El = LDI / dt = UI - during K-ON (1-35)By integrating the above formula, it can be obtained that the current flowing through the energy storage inductance L is:Where IL is the instantaneous value of the current flowing through the energy storage inductor L, t is the time variable, and I (0) is the initial current flowing through the energy storage inductor, that is, the current flowing through the energy storage inductor immediately before the switch K is turned on. Generally, when the duty cycle D is less than or equal to 0.5, I (0) = 0, so the maximum current ILM flowing through the energy storage inductance L can be obtained as follows:ILM = UI * ton / L - during k connection (d = 0.5) (1-37)Where ton is the time when the control switch K is turned on. When the control switch K in figure 1-11-a suddenly changes from on to off, the energy storage inductor L will release its stored energy (magnetic energy) through the back electromotive force. The back electromotive force generated by the energy storage inductor L is:The negative sign in the formula indicates that the polarity of the back EMF el is opposite to the symbol in formula (1-35), that is, the polarity of the back EMF of the inductance is exactly opposite when k is on and off. The first-order differential equation of formula (1-38) is solved as follows:In the formula, C is a constant. It is easy to calculate C by substituting the initial conditions into the above formula. Since the current IL flowing through the energy storage inductor L cannot change suddenly when the control switch K suddenly changes from on to off, I (ton ) is exactly equal to the maximum current ILM flowing through the energy storage inductor L, so formula (1-39) can be written as:When t is large, the value of the output voltage of the parallel switching power supply will be close to the input voltage UI, but this generally does not happen because the off time of the control switch K can not wait that long.As can be seen from equation (1-42), when the load r of parallel switching power supply is large or open circuit, the amplitude of output pulse voltage will be very high. Therefore, parallel switching power supply is often used in high voltage pulse generation circuit.
3 Simple Tips for Doubling Your Facebook Ad Results
Let's face it. Running Facebook ads is no easy task.Businesses around the world are all trying their hand at Facebook ads, only to figure out it's a bit more complicated than slapping some text on an image and calling it a day. Sound familiar?Do not worry. We've all been there at one point or another. It's important to remember that running Facebook ads is a constant battle. Luckily, there are a few proven methods you can use to immediately see more results from your efforts. If you apply and build off these tips, you will see your profits rise in no time.First off,A/B test your ad sets.Facebook ads are a guessing game. You can not know what is going to work well for your target audience without trying a ton of different options. So instead of publishing one ad set and hoping to hit home with your targeting, start A/B testing multiple ad sets!Before you launch your next campaign, build 5-10 different ad sets for the same ad, all equipped with different targeting, images, demographics, and more. I recommend that you run these ads under the "Engagement" goal to save a bit of cash.Once those ad sets have racked up about $10-$15 in ad spend, analyze which ad sets are performing best. Then, drop the losing ad sets and start to scale the winners.Now you are saving money and reducing your risk.Secondly,Use a call-to-action in your headline. One of the best ways to gain and hold your potential prospect's attention is to include a call-to-action in your headline.Most Facebook users who see your ad will decide if they are interested in your offer within the first 7 seconds of viewing it. That means you do not have a lot of time to get their attention. So instead of writing vague and boring headlines like,"We made an e-book. Check it out!"Write an exciting and detailed headline like,"Download now to learn how you can triple your Facebook ad results in 7 days, without spending twice the cash!". See the difference?Not only will your potential prospects be more interested in your offer, they will also know exactly what to do after reading your copy and viewing your image. And lastly,Drill down your targeting. If you are not targeting your potential customers correctly, there's no way you are going to achieve your sales goals. 99% percent of the time, businesses are not targeting correctly because they are not going deep enough.Let me explain:Your goal when running ads is to make sure the most passionate group of your target audience will see them. That way, you guarantee more sales. Let's say you sell running equipment. Instead of targeting people who list "Running" as an interest, target people who subscribe to popular running magazines, who follow influential figures in the running community, or who have bought running gear in the past.Now that's a passionate audience.All in all, if you use these three tips in your next Facebook ad, you are going to see amazing results in no time. So get out there and start advertising!If running and testing Facebook ads is not your strong suit, let's talk. We specialize in social media advertisements that guarantee powerful results. No more guessworkWhy did univision have an ad in english?You said you are bilingual. So are other people. Language is not regulated. In fact, I applaud them for doing it. Running an English Public Service blurb on a Spanish station was an excellent idea. It got your attention, did not it?Grub: adding Windows 10If you are booting in BIOS mode, there's not much you can do to make this work reliably (at least, last I knew there was not a reliable way without having separate hard drives for each install).If you are booting in UEFI mode though, it largely consists of creating a GRUB entry to chainload /EFI/Microsoft/Boot/bootmgfw.efi from your EFI system partition. You will also need to modify what Windows thinks the bootloader should be (or make your EFI variables read-only (only some firmwares let you do this)), otherwise Windows will update the EFI variables to point at it's own bootloader as the default every time you boot into Windows. I am not 100% certain about the exact command you need to pull this off (it's been too long since I had to set up my own system), except that it's done with bcdedit
Speed of Includegraphics Seemingly Dependent on How Many Packages Are Loaded!
This was quite a puzzle.This answer will be long, to match the long time it took me to get to the bottom of this, but the sections are titled and numbered so you can skip over the ones you don't care about. You can even skip to the one-sentence summary at the end. :-)This will describe how I arrived at the answer. If you don't care, and only want the answer, you can skip to the next section.I took the file at the top of the question, saved it into a file jfbu1.tex, also created foo.pdf by copying it as cp $(kpsewhich example-image-a.pdf) foo.pdf, then ran pdftex jfbu1.tex, and sure enough, saw output like:where the numbers are increasing.As what was being measured involved includegraphicsfoo.pdf, I tried to unpack the definition of includegraphics to see if it could be further simplified. (I also tried other things, like replacing D with 10000 occurrences of the expansion of A directly, but that didn't make a difference.) Well, showincludegraphics shows that its definition is leavevmode @ifstar Gin@cliptrue Gin@i Gin@clipfalse Gin@i , so let's replace includegraphics in our file with that, see if the phenomenon is still observed, and then try removing parts of it. (E.g. the first case of the @ifstar conditional is probably irrelevant, as we don't have a * in this example, so we won't take that path.)I did this a little, mostly relying on show, and cursing the complexity of LaTeX (just writing out the full definition of includegraphics in terms of TeX primitives would be immense). (Small tip: next time use the LaTeX source code rather than show; it's a bit easier to read.)Anyway, after a few steps of this (a few steps deep into the definition of includegraphics), I observed that we could replace the original file'swith (using just an early part of the definition of includegraphics):and the phenomenon of time increasing as we load more packages was still observed (though it ran faster). In fact, proceeding a bit, this was sufficient: apparently, simply testing whether a file exists takes longer as we load more packages!A few more steps, and we can get down to TeX primitives (no loading of graphicx necessary): which simply opens and closes the file (apparently this is part of how IfFileExists works internally).After making a few more changes  for example, we don't need the trick to convert pdfelapsedtime into seconds(?) as we care more about the fact that it's increasing than about its actual value, and the phenomenon is consistently observed even with much fewer repetitions instead of 10000 (say 81, replacing 10 with 3)  we arrive at the following slightly simpler file jfbu2.tex, where the phenomenon is still observed:and this still prints output like (not always the same numbers, but the pattern of increase is consistent):(About the useless thepdfelapsedtime before the D, which simply inserts "0" into the typeset output, I'll say more below.)And the mystery remains: the A above seems like it should just do a constant number of operations, why does it take longer as more packages are loaded?Now that we're down to TeX primitives, there's nothing further to unpack at the macro (the TeX programming) level, and we need to look into the TeX program itself.We can step through the TeX program with a debugger like gdb.To do this it would usually be easier to work with the LuaTeX source code, as that's (sort of) written directly in C, rather than the source code of TeX/pdfTeX/XeTeX, as they undergo several rounds of mangling from the .web source to the C code before being compiled. (So the C code that is finally compiled is more readable in the case of LuaTeX.) But it turns out (after appropriate definitions of pdfelapsedtime) that this phenomenon we're interested in does not happen in LuaTeX, so we're stuck with pdfTeX. (It does happen in TeX / XeTeX, where without the convenience of pdfelapsedtime we can just observe visually that it takes longer.)To use gdb, the program needs to be compiled with -g, and also binaries shouldn't be stripped. Fortunately I'd done this before: the trick is, when building from TeX Live sources (see here and here), instead ofto useand update $PATH to use the new binaries appropriately. (Or, if using make install strip, should replace with make install.)One can start gdb with a command like gdb pdftex (make sure PATH is right, or else specify the full path to our specially compiled pdftex binary). Then, one can set breakpoints, before running the program (as if we'd run pdftex jfbu2.tex on the commandline) with run jfbu2.tex.Which breakpoints to set? We'd like to stop when some particular function is called, which doesn't get called too often. My choice was the function called by pdfelapsedtime (though in hindsight I guess using the one for pdfresettimer would have been better) which with some looking at the source code and/or gdb, happens to be (or call) getmicrointerval. (This is the reason for the extra thepdfelapsedtime in the file above, because I want to break there.)So we can start gdb, set break getmicrointerval, and run the program, and it will stop after reaching the place where the function is called. Then we can type continue to continue until the next breakpoint (or end of program), or type next to invoke the next statement of the program (stepping over function calls, i.e. not descending into them) or step to do the same while stepping into function calls. As you keep hitting Enter, it will show you each function that's called, and each line of source that's executed.After doing this a little, it's clear that it will take a long time to do this manually.Long story short: put the following in /.gdbinit:This is like typing "step" and hitting Enter a few million times manually until the program finishes, and everything that gdb outputs will be written to file gdb.txt.With this, the whole thing ran for a few hours, and produced a gdb.txt that was over 700 MB in size, from over 20 million lines.The start of the file looks something like this:(The first Breakpoint 1 at 0x84bad: file pdftex0.c, line 3471 is printed when we set the breakpoint; we had continue after the first time gdb paused at the breakpoint so there's no output until the next.) The part shown in the output above is common to each time pdfelapsedtime is called (we haven't even got to the D part yet).Of course we can't process this 20-million several-hundred-megabyte file by reading through it manually. In fact, grep --line-number Breakpoint gdb.txt can be used to see the number of program steps executed between successive occurrences of pdfelapsedtime (calls to getmicrointerval):This shows thatwhere we can see the increase in the numbers in bold above. (Missed the first D because of the continue.)The main idea is that although the file is 20 million lines long, the set of different lines executed is much smaller, and what we want to compare is which lines were executed more frequently between each successive pairs of breakpoints.We can keep counters of which lines were executed how many times between successive occurrences of Breakpoint 1, getmicrointerval in the file. Used the following Python script:This is the first few lines of output for 2 (the second occurrence of D). The first column is the number of times executed, then what's printed by gdb (usually the line number and source line).Compare with that for 4 (the third occurrence of D, after tikz is loaded):and for 6 (the last one, after xlop is loaded):We can just do this visually, by say opening each in a separate tab and switching between them. For example, the (most frequent) while ( s > 255 ) loop or test is performed 2502900 times after tikz.tex is loaded, compared to 975726 times before. Everything after (less frequent than) zsearchstring is run the same number of times (among statements executed at least 500 times say), and everything above that is from inside the zsearchstring function, or from the zstreqstr function just above (called from zsearchstring). So the culprit is entirely this zsearchstring function in pdftex0.c.If we understand what this zsearchstring is and why it's called, it concludes the debugging process.If you skipped the previous section: so far we've found that all the additional work between different calls of D happens in the function zsearchstring in pdftex0.c, which seems to be invoked more times (and executes a lot more operations) as more packages are loaded. Why?We can see the entire definition of zsearchstring in pdftex0.c or for that matter in tex0.c (which are both inside Build/source/Work/texk/web2c/ in the texlive directory):But at first glance it does not appear to be used anywhere else in the file. That's because in pdftexcoerce.h (or texcoerce.h) you'll find a declaration and a macro defined as it:and you can indeed find searchstring used a few times in pdftex0.c or tex0.c.This C code is somewhat harder to read than necessary though. In fact, the list of files where searchstring is found includes tex.p, which is presumably the result of tangling tex.web. Yet if you look in the TeX source code (with texdoc tex say), you will not find this function, as it's not part of the code that Knuth wrote. It's instead part of the system-dependent changes  changes made in web2c to produce a working TeX program. Instead you need to look at the complete (pdf)TeX source, with the change files too. Something like the following (assuming that texlive is the texlive directory):to produce a pdftex.tex file, followed by pdftex pdftex.tex (after optionally changing the input webmac to input pdfwebmac). (One could also look in the .ch file directly, but WEB code is ugly and is best not looked at directly.)Now we can look in the resulting PDF for search_string.Here's the definition of search_string; compare with our earlier zsearchstring C code above (generated from this):This finally explains what search_string is and why it exists. (We'll say more below.) Looking at places where it's used makes things even more clear. It's used in three procedures: end_name, start_input, and slow_make_string. Let's look at the first two:Compare with the corresponding sections in the TeX program: 517 and 537, which don't use search_string after calling make_name_string. It's worth looking at the definition (at least the documentation / context) of that too:We saw above that these functions are called when scanning a filename in an input, openin or openout operation. This of course includes the includegraphicsfoo.pdf example in the question, and the openin in the reduced example.Note that sometimes scanning does not require creating a string: we can see this by changing the test case to:where the phenomenon is not observed. (Well I haven't run it through gdb, but the numbers do not increase.)Also see why working with filenames required system-dependent changes in the first place  at the time TeX was developed, file names were very inconsistent across operating systems; in fact in the place where TeX was developed (SAIL), file names consisted of a base, extension and an area that included the user's initials and project (or something like that).Some background, for understanding the context of the code we saw above. At the time Knuth was originally (re)writing TeX (19801982), the programming language Pascal (at least the version available to him and at many places where TeX was going to be used) did not have good support for strings. So TeX basically takes care of allocating all strings manually: there's a giant array of characters called str_pool, initialized at the start of the program, and whenever TeX needs to store a new string, it stores the characters of the new string (as it's being built up, e.g. scanned from the input file) at successive indices into this array. For example, the kth string starts at str_poolstr_startk and goes up to str_poolstr_startk1-1. Or you can read this in the program:Note that the string pool is just an array, and is not optimized for finding strings in it: the TeX program as originally written saves references to whatever strings are needed (e.g. it will save k, and thereby know where to find the kth string). It never needs to look through all strings in the array for a particular string, any more than it's reasonable to search through all bytes of a computer's memory looking for a particular value.But when the system-dependent changes for web2c were made (a long time ago), a function slow_make_string was introduced which before saving a string, searches the entire string pool(!) to see whether it's already present under some other name (number). If so, the same string (number) is reused. This explains the very frequent (executed millions of times) loop ofthat we saw in gdb: it's searching through all string numbers s, starting at the largest (most recent) value.It appears that this may have made sense when memory constraints were tighter than time constraints (you can always wait longer), especially as it would also mean the string pool was small so there was a smaller limit on how much time would be spent searching through the entirety of it. At current memory sizes (and memory access times, which have over the last many decades consistently become more expensive relative to (arithmetic) CPU instructions) it may be worth reconsidering...(TeX as originally written does not do this. From some of the documentation it's worded as though TeX simply creates this new string, stores no reference to it, and moves ahead, which sounds like a typical memory leak bug  possibly worthy of one of those reward cheques from DEK? :P  but from looking at some of the code it seems rather that TeX unconditionally flushes the string, so it's rather the case that the changed (web2c) TeX wants to preserve a reference for some reason, so it needs this workaround... it's not clear to me which is the case.)Apart from TeX Live, I took a look at MiKTeX, and it has nearly identical code for these sections. (Just renamed from 54/web2c-string to 54/MiKTeX-string.) I have not been able to look at other less common (not based on web2c) TeX distributions, like KerTeX or TeX-gpc, nor of course of closed-source (commercial) distributions like BaKoMa TeX or Texpad.At the end of a TeX run, if tracingstats1, the program prints statistics to the log file (Here is how much of TeX's memory you used). These are the results by moving the bye to different places in the above file (after adding tracingstats1):At the top of the file (just after tracingstats1):After A, B, C, D have been first defined:(Doesn't change because single-letter names are not stored separately.)After those and also filename has been defined:(Makes sense: filename is one string, and 8 characters long.)Just before the first D:(The two strings of 19 bytes total are not the primitives pdfresettimer and pdfelapsedtime (those would be already stored), but rather something created by thepdfelapsedtime. Not sure of the details.)Just after the first D, or just after the first message:After input xintexpr is loaded (and any place before input tikz):After input tikz:(Note the large increase compared to earlier.)After input xlop (or end of file):These relative increases in the size of the string pool roughly match the relative increases in the time for executing D.In the common implementations of TeX, commands in which TeX scans for a file name (as in the case of includegraphics) involve searching through the entire string pool, and this gets slower as more packages are loaded because the packages define control sequences (macros) whose names are stored in the string poolHere is test file for (Plain) pdftex. To test it, you need some graphics file foo.pdf in working repertory. Mine is a copy of the file found via kpsewhich example-image-a.pdf. Call the following testspeedgraphics.tex and execute pdftex testspeedgraphics on command line.input graphicx.texdefBnoexpandAnoexpandAnoexpandAnoexpandAnoexpandA% noexpandAnoexpandAnoexpandAnoexpandAnoexpandA%edefCBBBBBBBBBB% 100 AdefAnoexpandC%edefDC% 100 C, each one expanding to 100 AdefAsetbox0hboxfoodeffooincludegraphicsfoo.pdfpdfresettimerD % 10000 usage of includegraphicsedefzzzthedimexprpdfelapsedtime spmessage^^J^^J**** zzz ****^^J^^Jinput xintexpr.stypdfresettimerD % 10000 usage of includegraphicsedefzzzthedimexprpdfelapsedtime spmessage^^J^^J**** zzz ****^^J^^Jinput tikz.texpdfresettimerD % 10000 usage of includegraphicsedefzzzthedimexprpdfelapsedtime spmessage^^J^^J**** zzz ****^^J^^Jinput xlop.texpdfresettimerD % 10000 usage of includegraphicsedefzzzthedimexprpdfelapsedtime spmessage^^J^^J**** zzz ****^^J^^JbyeThis file will do 4 times 10000 includegraphicsfoo.pdf in box0. We load more and more packages. On a 2.8GHz computer I get this typically in the console output:**** 1.12306pt****(loading of xintexpr)**** 1.19366pt****(loading of tikz)**** 1.36714pt****(loading of xlop)**** 1.40392pt****Hence there is increase of timings, and one feels the bigger the package the more the impact.Now comment out all loading of extra packages in test file above and repeat experiment. I get typically**** 1.13177pt******** 1.12141pt******** 1.14122pt******** 1.12416pt****i.e. there no timings drift...Now another test file, where we still include graphicx.tex but do no usage of includegraphics, rather we expand a dummy macro foo. This being much faster we do 1000000 repetitions.input graphicx.texdefBnoexpandAnoexpandAnoexpandAnoexpandAnoexpandA% noexpandAnoexpandAnoexpandAnoexpandAnoexpandA%edefCBBBBBBBBBB% 100 AdefAnoexpandC%edefDC% 100 C, each one expanding to 100 AdefAnoexpandD%edefEC% 100 D, each one expanding to 100 CdefAsetbox0hboxfoodeffoofoopdfresettimerE % 1000000 "foo"edefzzzthedimexprpdfelapsedtime spmessage^^J^^J**** zzz ****^^J^^Jinput xintexpr.stypdfresettimerE % 1000000 "foo"edefzzzthedimexprpdfelapsedtime spmessage^^J^^J**** zzz ****^^J^^Jinput tikz.texpdfresettimerE % 1000000 "foo"edefzzzthedimexprpdfelapsedtime spmessage^^J^^J**** zzz ****^^J^^Jinput xlop.texpdfresettimerE % 1000000 "foo"edefzzzthedimexprpdfelapsedtime spmessage^^J^^J**** zzz ****^^J^^JbyeThis test file does all the input's of extra packages. Typically I get from pdftex testspeedfoo.tex:**** 0.48016pt****(xintexpr)**** 0.49115pt****(tikz)**** 0.48283pt****(xlop)**** 0.47798pt****i.e. no impact at all.Now, why is there impact with includegraphics. Is it simply because its expansion is much more complex, and if yes what is explanation? or is it something specific related to includegraphics dealings and then again what is explanation?Perhaps something having to do with hash-table? the more macros are defined the less efficient TeX is in expanding macros? (then the thing would be not includegraphics specific, I stopped my testing there, leaving the experts to express their intuitions first).Originally, this question arose in the context of a Joseph answer using xfp and includegraphics. I wanted to test if using draft option of includegraphics had an impact and then realized that loading or not xfp changed the timings. Then I realized it had nothing xfp specific, but any big package would do.I also tested with this variant of foo:defAsetbox0hboxfoodeffoofooadeffooafoobdeffoobfoocdeffoocfooddeffoodfooedeffooefoofdeffooffoogdeffoogfoohdeffoohfooideffooifoojdeffoojfookdeffookfooldeffoolfoomdeffoomfoondeffoonfooodeffooofoopdeffoopfooqdeffooqfoordeffoorfoosdeffoosfootdeffootfooudeffooufoovdeffoovfoowdeffoowfooxdeffooxfooydeffooyfoozdeffoozfooAdeffooAfooBdeffooBfooCdeffooCfooDdeffooDfooEdeffooEfooFdeffooFfooGdeffooGfooHdeffooHfooIdeffooIfooJdeffooJfooKdeffooKfooLdeffooLfooMdeffooMfooNdeffooNfooOdeffooOfooPdeffooPfooQdeffooQfooRdeffooRfooSdeffooSfooTdeffooTfooUdeffooUfooVdeffooVfooWdeffooWfooXdeffooXfooYdeffooYfooZdeffooZfooaadeffooaafoobbdeffoobbfooccdeffooccfoodddeffooddfooeedeffooeefooffdeffoofffooggdeffooggfoohhdeffoohhfooiideffooiifoojjdeffoojjfookkdeffookkfoolldeffoollfoommdeffoommfoonndeffoonnfoooodeffoooofooppdeffooppfooqqdeffooqqfoorrdeffoorrfoossdeffoossfoottdeffoottfoouudeffoouufoovvdeffoovvfoowwdeffoowwfooxxdeffooxxfooyydeffooyyfoozzdeffoozzfooAAdeffooAAfooBBdeffooBBfooCCdeffooCCfooDDdeffooDDfooEEdeffooEEfooFFdeffooFFfooGGdeffooGGfooHHdeffooHHfooIIdeffooIIfooJJdeffooJJfooKKdeffooKKfooLLdeffooLLfooMMdeffooMMfooNNdeffooNNfooOOdeffooOOfooPPdeffooPPfooQQdeffooQQfooRRdeffooRRfooSSdeffooSSfooTTdeffooTTfooUUdeffooUUfooVVdeffooVVfooWWdeffooWWfooXXdeffooXXfooYYdeffooYYfooZZdeffooZZfooto try to emulate the case with expansions of many distinct macros. But this does not show any drifting when loading packages, i.e. I don't reproduce with that the includegraphics situation: all four executions of 1000000's A take each about 2.9s--3s on my 2.8GHz computer.
How Much Does a Hamster Cage Cost?
Getting hamster for your child involves finding the right hamster cage and the feeding and bedding accessories that go with it. Before you bring the hamster, check out the costs of ownership.Hamster  CageThe most important thing that you will need is the hamster cage. This will be where your hamster will live. There are lots of different types of cages. These can be purchased for anywhere between $10 for a small plastic cage up to $100 for a larger cage made of metal or wood.BeddingBedding material is important as it will make your hamster cage comfortable for the hamster. This will cost between $2 and $10 depending on whether you choose basic bedding, or whether you prefer the scented varieties. Prepare to replace bedding weekly as part of your cleaning regimen.Dish and FoodA dish to put food in is a very good idea, it's best to buy a ceramic bowl so that hamsters can not chew and eat it. This should only cost up to a maximum of $10.Food is also necessary and you can buy lots of different mixes of hamster food at your local pet shop. These should not cost any more than a few dollars for a small bag to try out.BottleAll animals need to drink and hamsters are no exception. Expect to pay up to $5 for a water bottle. A bowl of water could be used instead however bottles are much cleaner and less likely to make a mess.Can guinea pigs eat hamster food?Ignore that person above! I feed my guinea pigs hamster food because I have like 7 hamster lol :) they are perfectly fine and I've won loads of pet shows XD they've been alive for years too :PI lost the tablespoon i use to measure my hamster food?Hi Yes, that's ok. It would be just like you hamster chewing his/her cage or plastic igloo, or any other toy or item that's plastic. It is 100% safe if your hamster has chewed the measuring tablespoon. If I were you I would clean the cage to find it. If it's not in the cage do not worry, just look around the cage, in the floor, under the bed, just any place like that. I would also ask your mom where she put it because it might not be in the cage at all. Hope I have helped you!Is it possible to make homemade hamster food? If so do you have any recipes?I have one! Ingredients: Diffrent types of seeds(unsalted) honey put some of the seeds in a bowl. put honey and form balls. let the honey dry for it hardens. put one ball at a time in!is it okay to feed pet mice hamster food?Hamster food is different. Maybe post on craigslist if someone is willing to tradeWhat foods (other than hamster food) can i give to my hamsters?A hamsters diet mainly consists of a dried mix that can be bought in pet stores. This will contain all the vitamins and minerals a hamster needs. Make sure the mix you buy does not contain too many seeds or nuts because too many of these can make your hamster fat. One thing to note when feeding dwarf hamsters is not to feed too many sugary foods as this could lead to diabetes. You should provide two teaspoons of the dry mix each day. Any food that your hamster does not eat should be thrown away. Along with the normal hamster mix you can also feed your hamster fresh fruit and vegetables once or twice a week. Be careful you do not feed too many of these as it may cause the hamster to get diarrhoea. The following is a list of some foods you can feed your hamster: Banana Sweetcorn Cucumber Apple Cheese Turnip Raisins Peas Carrot Celery Bread Grapes Melon Chicken Never feed your hamster these foods: Chocolate Raw Kidney Beans Garlic Onions Raw Potato Sweets Hope this helps.Hamster Food, Treats & Diet: What Types, How Much & OftenFeeding your hamster is going to be relatively easy considering all the food options that are available to you. With that said though, not every type of hamster food is good for them. Some of your options include carefully formulated ingredients that will provide your hamster a well-balanced diet while others do not provide any nutritional value and are loaded with nothing but sugars or fats. The hamster food you should look for includes 12-24% protein and 3-6% fat. For Pregnant or baby hamsters, you should get hamster food that contains 18-40% protein and 7-9% fat. The reason pregnant mothers and babies need more protein is that they need all the protein to grow. It's during the first month of a baby hamster's life that does most of it's growing; additional protein will help. In addition to the protein and fats, they need a diet high in carbohydrates. Since they burn so much energy when they are active, hamster food with some needed carbs will give them the energy to do their nightly exercise on the hamster wheel or through their tubes and tunnels. Round out the diet with greens in the forms of lettuces, grasses, fruits, and vegetables. What is in Hamster Food With all the options available and all the guidelines you need to follow, you are probably wondering what exact type of hamster food to get. The problem is, there is no one right answer. We can give you a recommendation on what we think makes a well-balanced hamster diet but by no means is this always going to be right for your situation. In addition to pregnant and baby hamsters, you might need to alter your diet formula for any obese, old, or diabetic hamsters. Obese hamsters should be limited in their fat intake, old hamsters can be fed what the babies eat and diabetic hamsters should have low sugar diets. In regards to prepackaged hamster chow, these should make up more than 50% of the overall diet. There are two main types to choose from; seed mixes and lab blocks of pellets. Variety is the spice of life so it's okay to use both in your hamster's diet. A bag of mixed seeds is a great choice if you want a large variety of options for your hamster to eat. Depending on the brand, theses mixes include not only seeds but also and other types of grasses/grains (oats, wheat) dried fruits and vegetables. If your hamsters ate a bit of all these ingredients, it would probably have a relatively balanced diet. However, just as you see in humans, hamsters will pick and choose what they want to eat. Often they will go for the more fatty foods like sunflower seeds or pumpkin seeds while not eating the other parts of the mix. Thus, they do not get a well-balanced diet. You can pick out the fatty seeds like sunflower and pumpkin seeds and only give them out every so often. You might consider removing some of the corn or alfalfa since some hamster owners say they can cause cancer or liver damage but there is little research to back this up from what we can find. Additionally, dehydrated fruits can get stuck in their mouths or cause a cheek impaction. Finally, avoid mixes that have a lot of molasses in them since they are full of sugar. Lab blocks were originally created as feed in laboratories for research animals. You can now buy these at pet stores but the best ones still come from manufactures that still sell to laboratories. A lab block usually contains a mixture of seed and grains and vitamins and minerals. These are a preferred type of hamster food if you want to make sure your little guys or girls are getting all the vitamins and minerals they need to stay healthy. If you could only get one type of dry food, these would be them. You might think they would taste bad but your hamsters will most likely love them, especially the Syrian breeds. In addition to getting a well-balanced diet, these pellets and blocks will help wear down your hamster's teeth and keep them from becoming overgrown. Lastly, Block and pellets are easier to save while cleaning your hamster cage then the smaller seed mixes. Hamsters in nature rarely drink water but instead get their water from the things they eat (This does NOT mean you do not need a water bottle though). Fresh greens, fruits, and vegetables not only provide your hamsters with the water they need, but they also provide extra vitamins and minerals they need. With that said, you need to be careful how much greens you add into the hamster food; too many greens and they can get a case of diarrhea. A rough guide calls for only feeding it about one square inch (2.54cm) of greens per day. There are greens, fruits, and vegetables that are great for hamsters and there are also ones that should be avoided. The following are some of the greens that are acceptable and some of the greens to avoid (If you collect these from outdoors, make sure there are no pesticides or toxic chemicals that could be on them. Always thoroughly wash them before placing them in your hamster's cage.) • Corn (may or may not cause cancer) • Alfalfa (may or may not cause cancer) In their natural habitat hamsters are mainly herbivores but on occasion, if the opportunity arises, they will snatch up small insects or grubs. This means you will need to provide your pet with some food that contains protein. Many of the prepackaged mixes will have some protein so you wo not have to provide that much more. All you need is a small fingers worth every so often. Try to keep its protein intake down around 12-15% unless otherwise for reasons stated in this article (pregnant and baby hamsters). The following is a list of acceptable forms of protein that can be fed to them (It's best to get any of the live insects/bugs on this list from the pet store so no diseases get spread). Hamsters need access to a fresh source of water 24/7. The best way to do this is by providing them with a water bottle or two throughout their habitat. You need more than one if you have several hamsters or an expansive cage system. In the wild you could observe a hamster licking different rocks or minerals that contain salt. They need salt to help retain water and stay healthy. You can provide your hamster with a salt lick or a mineral salts. These come in various forms and are sometimes added to their accessories as a form of play. If you provide your little guy with a well-balanced diet you probably wo not need to get supplements to add extra vitamins and minerals into their food or water. However, if you want to play it safe and make sure they are getting all the nutrition they need, you can get vitamin and mineral supplements; it more than likely wo not do them any harm as long as you follow the directions. Occasionally a pet owner wants to spoil their hamsters by giving them some treats. For the most part, if you feed it a well-balanced diet it wo not need to be fed any treats. However, every so often it's okay to give your hamster something that is not the best for it in terms of nutritional value. If anything, if it does not provide any nutritional value, a tasty treat might improve their happiness which is a roundabout way can improve the little guy or girl's well being. There are a lot of options on the market these days and some are less unhealthy than others. Most of them come in flashy packaging and contain a lot of sugar. Here is a list of some of the treats that are available: Avoid any treat that contains a high amount of sugar. This means no cakes, cookies, or chocolates. If you only spoil your hamster every so often and do not fall for their tricks that they just have to have a treat, then you are being a good pet hamster owner and providing them with the proper care they need.
Why Didn't Noah Have Any Grandchildren in the Ark?
Come on, having one of every animal is one thing, but now having grandchildren on the Ark? That would just be too hard to believe.the more disturbing question is eventually he would have had them. Exactly who is having sex to produce said child? Kind of like, how did Adam and Eve become grandparents?.1. Mothers: what would you do if some other child hit your child?Why do not you bring this up to the apartment complex manager? If parents are not out there watching their children then their children should not be out there either! I would have been tempted to swat the kids butt, but of course I would not have. I would take it to the manager.2. Easter baskets... How do you fill them?I feel the same way you do. I make it a point to not over do it. My family never over did it, but I remember my cousin's family thought it was normal to spend $300 per child for Easter. They would spend almost a $1000 in total on Easter 'gifts'. Gift certificates, you name it. I always thought it was crazy. I got some great ideas from a question I asked the other day. What I plan on doing for my kids Easter 'Buckets' is: Getting a couple plastic pales that have the shovels, rakes and what not in them (cost $1.50 each at Toys'R'Us right now). In them I am going to put a coloring book ($0.50 each) crayon pack ($0.50 each). Going to add one of their favorite fruit juices, couple Kinder Surprise eggs (got a package of 12 for $2) and a chocolate bunny ($1 each). Then on the side I have picked them up a movie (Go! Diego Go! Dinosaur Adventures for $5). My mom always got a 'family movie' as a gift to the family. It was usually a Disney movie of some sort. She did it because it kept us busy while she was cooking our big Easter Dinner.3. Is this art or child pornography?Defiantly Child Porn. Most art containing children are not nude4. How is child support calculated if the father is not in contact with the child?it is based on income of both parents. Child support amounts can always be changed based on income or other factors related to bring up the child.. It does not matter if you see your child or not you are still responsible to help support the child5. Is this normal? Is your child like this? ?Oh, that will change, just wait!6. parents: if your child was atheist?This is not about atheism vs. christianity - it's about respect and family. It's the holidays and whether you believe in God, Jesus or whatever you can still gather with your family and visit. Obviously exchanging gifts does not seem to offend you (funny how that works) so what is the worst that can happen? You just stand there and bow your head while everyone else is praying - I doubt they will be watching to make sure EVERYONE is praying along with them. Go and have fun visiting with your family and politely decline to exchange gifts with them - you do not want to go against your principles afterall7. Is this child abuse? And I so I it legally considered child abuse in Ohio?I am not from Ohio, and I have never lived there. BUT I would consider it to be child abuse. Be brave and consult a higher authority about it. It will be hard and scary, but your parents are the ones who are suppose to protect you. Not harm you. Would you rather live in pain and fear from your own parents, or potentially live in a safe and relaxed home?8. Is this considered child abuse?No this is not child abuse, if this was happening on a daily basis then yes. Sometimes parents flip out I know my mom has beat my *** like that when I did some bad stuff, but obviously she loves me because she feeds me and gives me shelter. Same with your parents, they may flip out for bullshit reasons sometimes but they still love ya.
Cheap but Fabulous Wedding Decoration Ideas
Wedding decorations are essential when planning a wedding. The chosen decors have the potential to make or break the atmosphere of the party, thus careful selection must be taken into serious consideration. It need not be expensive, actually. Price is not a determining factor in making your wedding decorations beautiful and elegant. Buy Cheap Wedding DecorationsFor a soon-to-be bride, planning a wedding usually goes way beyond choosing the most fitting bridal gown and accessories. More often than not, it involves almost every minute details of the occasion, from the wedding favors to the food at the reception. Because of the costs of all other aspects of the event, the prospect of saving some extra bucks on cheap wedding decorations is definitely welcome.In this times where the economy is not at its best, couples should pursue practical ways in making their wedding dreams come true. There are cheap wedding decorations out there that can give fabulous look to the wedding venue and reception. Whats the use of expensive wedding decors, when the decorator is not apt for the job? All you need is your sense of creativity. By being creative you can make each of the cheap wedding decoration shine in glamour and beauty. Affordable wedding decorationsBasically, wedding decorations are made up of flowers, ribbons and candles. Of all items, flowers are the most dominant. Now, to obtain dozens of flowers at the lowest price possible go to flower farms. Flower farms are indeed the cheapest place where you can buy them wholesale. As for the task of doing flower arrangements, you do not have to hire a florist when you can decorate it yourself. This way you can have a great deal of cutting the cost. Why not seek the helping hands of your family and friends to come with an amazing masterpiece? You can come up with different ideas from them. Also, this can be a good bonding time for you and your loved ones to enjoy with.The candles and the ribbon are like supporting artists that add more drama to your wedding decoration. Cheap candles are widely available. They jive perfectly with the flowers and with ribbons to accentuate them; you will certainly have an elegant wedding decoration. Sydney wedding decorationsTry to look around discount stores as well. Youll be surprised at the number of cute items youll find there. You can use these items to add more color to your decorations but dont overdo it. It should complement to your wedding colors and theme. Its safe to keep it simple but elegant.Again, make use of your imagination. The sky is the limit here! Be creative in coming up with a cheap but fabulous wedding decoration. However, this entails time. As with all subjects, you need to plan ahead. With a plan in hand, you can accomplish the task of designing the entire wedding decoration and the search for the cheapest materials. If everything is well-coordinated and well-planned you can rest assured that your cheap wedding decoration will turn out fabulous on your wedding day.Visit here Wedding Decoration Items for Sale·RELATED QUESTIONApartment, non-perm, cheap decor ideas?I have lived in some tiny temporary places with mis-matched furniture. The thing that I have done that has always had an absolutely HUGE impact in making everything come together and look alive and cozy is to incorporate as many plants as possible! The bigger, the better! You would not believe what a difference this makes. Try it! You wont believe your eyes!!
Children
ChildrenImage quality checkingReliability of measurements increases if indicators of pelvic alignment are taken into account: Obturator foramen diameter ratio (of Tnnis): A quotient of pelvic rotation by dividing the horizontal diameter of the obturator foramen of the right side and that of the left. In neutral rotation the ratio is 1 but is considered to be acceptable when it is between 0.56 and 1.8. Symphysis os-ischium angle (of Tnnis): This evaluates the pelvic position in the sagittal plane. Lines are drawn from the highest point of the ischium to the most prominent point of the symphysis, joining at the inside of the pelvis. The range of normal values is from 90 to 135 and is related to the infant's age.MeasurementsThe most useful lines and angles that can be drawn in the pediatric pelvis assessing hip dysplasia are as follows: Normal hip. Hip dysplasia. (A) Hilgenreiner line, connects the inferior tips of the iliac bones, at the triradiate cartilage. This line is used to measure the acetabular angle and as a reference for Perkin line. (B) Perkin line is perpendicular to Hilgenreiner line, touching the lateral margin of the acetabular roof. This leads to four quadrants and a normal femoral head has to be located in the inferomedial quadrant. We can measure the lateral displacement of the femoral head with regard to the Perkin line by dividing the width of the head that crosses the Perkin line by the diameter of the head. The value for patients under 3 years must be 0 and in older children this ranges from 0 to 22%. (C) Shenton line is a continuous arc drawn from the inner edge of the femoral neck to the superior margin of the obturator foramen. In children over about 3 to 4 years of age, this line should be smooth and undisrupted, otherwise it may indicate a fracture or hip dysplasia. However, in infants this line can be unreliable as it depends on the rotation of the hip when the image is taken. (D) The acetabular index measures the acetabular roof slope. It is the most useful measure of acetabular dysplasia until 6 years of age. It is formed between Hilgenreiner line and the acetabular roof. In newborns, values of in males and in females are considered normal. It normally decreases with age: Acetabular index by age in males. Acetabular index by age in females. (E) The medial articular joint space is measured between the medial border of the femoral head or neck (when epiphysis is not ossified) and the acetabular platform. Normal values range between 5 and 12 mm. Differences greater than 1.5 mm between the two sides are considered abnormal.Reimer's migration index (MI), also called the femoral extrusion index, is calculated if hip dysplasia is detected. It can be used to indicate hip dislocation. It is the horizontal distance (parallel to the Hilgenreiner Line) between the Perkin line and the lateral border of the ossification center of the femoral head, divided by the horizontal width of the ossification center. The migration index is normally less than 33% by most sources, but 25% and 30% has also been suggested.— — — — — —What would you think if?I had the same thing, only I had no children from my first marriage. My second, my husband's first. I wore white, I do not think anyone really cares anymore. Hell, let's face it, there are not that many virginal brides ANYWAYS right. It's your wedding, your choice. I see wearing white as a fresh start. .you can think of it that way too.— — — — — —Wife and childrenOn 29 April 1858, Ainslie married Eliza Anne Sawer, daughter of Thomas Sawer of Ickham, Kent, and they had ten children, William Langstaff, Lylie Sophia, Francis Sawer, Mary Isobel, Montague, Rose, Beatrice, George Robert, Thomas Oswald, and Charles Bernard Ainslie (1879-1937), the last of whom became the father of the Liberal politician Jack Ainslie. Ainslie's widow outlived him by six years, dying on 27 December 1899.— — — — — —Do you think there is a problem with Illegal Aliens in the LGBT community?I do agree that people should be able to choose a place to live that is safe and offers more oppotunities for them. Unfortunately, we as U.S. citizens do not fully understand what hell people have to go through just to come to America. My husband of 6yrs. came here illegally simply because when he tried to it the right way the Embassy denied him simply because he was single, educated, and had no children. Therefore, they believed if they granted him a visa he would have no reason to come back to Nigeria. His living conditions in Africa were horrible and he had no reason to stay. I am grateful that he found a way to better his situation, even if it was not "Legal." Everyone has the right to choose to be happy. Why do we give the government so much authority over that? Why should the government get to decide who should and should not be happy? By the way, since my husband has been in the US, he's held a legal job for over 6yrs., pays taxes, and has been a terrific father to 3 beautiful children he helped create....not many American men can even do that!!!!
Does Anyone Have the Recipe for the Olive Garden Pumpkin Cheesecake? It Was WONDERFUL!?
Does anyone have the recipe for the Olive Garden Pumpkin Cheesecake? It was WONDERFUL!?I just bought one frozen from Olive Garden for $40. It weighs over 6 lbs!— — — — — —A recipe for Olive Garden Tuscan Bread Pudding.?carmiescucina.blogspot.com/.../tuscan-bread-pudding-with-amaretto.htm— — — — — —Getting dressed up to go to the Olive Garden..?In my opinion, Olive Garden is not totally fancy, but it sure is fun to dress up to go eat out with friends. Especially if they go occasionally, they must enjoy it— — — — — —What's the most you've ever eaten in a day?Olive Garden for lunch and some more food— — — — — —Does anyone have a recipe for Olive Garden's marinara sauce?recipetrove.com— — — — — —How do I make the same salad as olive garden?All it is is iceberg lettuce with red cabbage, tomato, cucumber and black olives. If you are referring to the dressing, that's just olive oil vinaigrette-look up recipes on the web or there are some good bottled varieties out there— — — — — —What is the recipe for Olive Garden's Tuscan Breeze cocktail?vodka, banana liquor, Pineapple juice— — — — — —Poll: Macaroni Grill or Olive Garden?Olive Garden all the way!— — — — — —how much money should i bring to olive garden?$70 to $170. Depends on what you order? Nice family place— — — — — —Zuppa Tuscany like Olive Garden, for slow cooker?Olive Gardens Zuppa Tuscana 1 1/2 cups spicy sausage 2 medium potatoes, cut in half lengthwise and cut into 1/4 inch slices 3/4 cup onions, diced 6 slices bacon 1 1/2 teaspoons minced garlic 2 cups kale leaves, cut in half, then sliced 2 tablespoons chicken base 1 quart water 1/3 cup heavy cream If sausage is in links, take out of wrapper (or slice). Cook ground sausage, until done. Cook bacon and onion over medium heat, when bacon is crisp, take it out of the pan and leave the onion. Add garlic to the onion, and cook 1 minute. Add chicken base, water, and potatoes; simmer 15 minutes. Crumble bacon. Add crumbled bacon, sausage, kale and cream. Simmer 4 minutes, then serve.— — — — — —what are some vegetarian options at olive garden?Salad and pasta with just veggies. Yummy!!— — — — — —When you eat at Olive Garden, what do you order?We go for lunch and both order unlimited soup and salad. Water w/lemon to drink.— — — — — —I am looking for a good red wine! help me!?Lambrusco it's fairly cheap I had it at Olive Garden— — — — — —Good places to eat at in fort Walton destin Florida?I would go for Olive Garden Ft Walton Beach chain, foods and drinks are just great. I am pretty sure you will loved it— — — — — —Olive Garden Never Ending Pasta Bowl...........?This is why I always only order my chicken & shrimp carbonara entree. =] It's total deliciousness!! Plus their garden fresh salad/little of companion's minestrone soup and sometimes appetizers before actually eating my amazing entree I get full VERY easily and I could finish my entree! I do not know what it is about Olive Garden that let's this miracle happen!! ^_^— — — — — —If I rolled into town and took you out to dinner, where would we eat? What's the main dish?Olive Garden, and I would eat Chicken Alfredo. What would you eat?— — — — — —Is Olive Garden A Good Place For A Date?I think so! I personally love Olive Garden, and a date there would be great! I think that it's a safe place to go because if your date has food restrictions or is a picky eater, chances are they will find something at Olive Garden that they can enjoy. Plus, most people love Italian food. I think it's a perfect place for a date— — — — — —Has anyone ever worked at The Olive Garden?all places are different so the amount of tables will depend on what you can handle you will make less than minimum wage due to you work on tips and they will give you a shirt— — — — — —Planning a vacation to New York very soon, what are the must sees?Please do not eat anywhere that has a theme (i.e. Mars 2012 JekyllHyde, Forrest Gump) and do not eat anywhere that has a franchise in other towns (like Olive Garden, Pizzeria Uno Chicago Grill, TGIF). Absolutely no offense to those restaurants, which even I go to as to experience what the rest of the country is subjected to -- but YOU WILL BE IN NY. There is a different international cuisine on every corner. Do not be afraid. Read restaurant reviews and calm down. Watch the cooking shows on PBS and cable. Clean ethnic food will not make you sick, nor will you be served anything dangerous or weird, like cat, or garden snails. If New Yorkers eat there every day and you read nothing going wrong, then it's safe. I would be more worried about mice droppings in the french fries at the ChuckECheese than eating delicious fresh cold (cooked) shrimp rolls at some Thai restaurant. You must go to a Broadway Show or two, either buying in advance or going to the TKTS booth and flipping a coin. You will not go wrong; it takes millions to launch a play so none of them, no matter how obscure, could be too bad. Read up on what is going on Off-Broadway, too. Check out concerts in small venues according to your musical tastes: jazz, classical, up-and-coming rock bands. Chances are you will be surrounded by "natives", which is what you want. Are you bored with Times Square, the Empire State building, Rockefeller Center and Statue of Liberty (all must-sees)? Overwhelmed by the magnificent art in all the museums (Met, MoMA, Frick, Guggenheim, etc)? Done with some of the other great museums (Police, Tenement, Natural History, NY Historical Society, Ellis Island, Photography, Moving Image, Television and Radio, Cloisters, Native American-- I could go on-and-on). Walked through the Village starting at Union Square (rest-up in the park before starting), down Broadway to Bleecker Street then west till you can not go any further? Done SOHO from Prince and Spring Streets east of Broadway, west to West Broadway? Walked the Upper East Side -- Fifth, Madison and Park Avenues from, say, 60th street to 90th-- and seen how the really rich live? Enjoyed the laid-back Upper West Side and understand why neither neighborhood resident would live in the other's? Shopped at J&R Music-Computer-Electronics World near Ground Zero? Then you are ready for the other boroughs. I do not just mean going the awesome Bronx Zoo and Bronx Botanical Garden, or simply walking across the Brooklyn Bridge and sitting on the Brooklyn Promenade looking at the NYC skyline; there are other places. Brownstone Brooklyn: from DUMBO under the bridges to Brooklyn Heights, Fort Greene/Clinton Hill to Prospect Heights, Prospect Park, Botanic Garden (there is an indoor exhibit, depending on when you go), Brooklyn Museum, Park Slope (especially 7th Avenue from 14th Street to Flatbush Ave). You could walk this in a day but you will be exhausted by the time you hit Park Slope. I recommend taking buses from Brooklyn Heights over to Ft Greene and walk the rest, up Vanderbilt to the Park. Walking shoes time. Then there's Coney Island, albeit only Nathans will be open. Caribbean neighborhood along Flatbush Avenue (take the 41 bus or train to Parkside), where you can get genuine roti, oxtails, tropical fruit and shop for bargains. Brooklyn's Chinatown on 8th Avenue, where souvenirs are cheaper (but probably just as fragile as Manhattan C-town) and the restaurants treat you less anonymously. Bay Ridge still has some Italian/Greek flavor, but catch it before it goes the way of the heavy Scandanavian influence that used to be there decades ago (5th avenue and 86th street; 3rd avenue between 65th and 101st streets). This is a residential neighborhood and can feel territorial, so know where you are going. Brighton Beach's Russian strip? On to Queens: Jackson Diner in Jackson Heights has the best freshest Indian food. It's truly a melting pot around there. Back to Manhattan: Columbia University campus, up Broadway, east to Harlem across 125 Street. Do not be afraid. Do as you would do in the rest of the city: act like you know where you going by memorizing your map and do not meet eyes of crazy people looking for confrontations. More good food, bargains and souvenirs. Koreatown karaoke bars (Manhattan 32nd street) Continue your research on other websites (try timeout.com, zagat.com, the Village Voice paper) and you will have a great ol' time.
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