Will China and South Korea and Even China, Japan and South Korea Fight in China's Power Battery Mark

According to the financial associated press on May 23, China and South Korea held a meeting of industry ministers on May 24 to discuss the battery of electric vehicles.

Recently, there are multiple signs that Korean power batteries are returning to the Chinese market. Since April, the three Korean battery companies, including Samsung, LG and ski, have launched a new round of investment in China. On May 2, Li zaiche, vice president of Samsung Electronics of South Korea, visited BYD in Shenzhen. At the 13th China International Battery exhibition held in Shenzhen from May 22 to 24, a special area for Korean exhibition group was also opened.

In contrast, the incremental performance of domestic lithium batteries does not increase profits. According to the new research report of Guojun power, the shipment growth of power lithium battery in 2017 was more than 30%, and the shipment growth of leading companies such as Ningde times, GuoXuan high tech and Yiwei lithium energy was more than 50%. However, due to the decline of price, the increment did not increase profits. This situation has continued since the first quarter of 2018.

In this case,

Fang Jianhua, partner and President of the new energy vehicle venture capital sub fund of the national scientific and Technological Achievements Transformation Fund, told reporters that compared with Korean and Japanese batteries, China has insurmountable advantages in the development of power batteries.

"First of all, China has the supporting capacity of the whole industry chain that Japanese and Korean enterprises do not have. Second, China has a larger application market, and Chinese power battery enterprises have more say in the application scenarios and adaptability of automotive batteries. In the past, consumer lithium batteries were completely different from automotive products, and the application scenario experience we have accumulated over the years is of great significance to power battery enterprises It is of great help to achieve the automotive level. Third, in terms of technology, China already has a certain competitiveness. "

Fighting is coming?

Ski, Samsung and LG, three Korean battery giants, launched a large-scale investment and plant construction plan for power batteries in China as early as 2014.

However, due to the impact of the new energy compensation fraud event, since May 2016, the Ministry of industry and information technology has clearly linked the catalogue of new energy vehicles and power lithium battery enterprises. Since then, only lithium batteries that have entered the catalogue of the Ministry of industry and information technology can be used for the assembly of new energy vehicles and enjoy new energy subsidies.

As early as March 24, 2015, the Ministry of industry and information technology has launched the specification conditions for automotive power battery industry, which has been implemented since May 1, 2015. The Ministry of industry and information technology promotes it by means of voluntary application for testing by enterprises and listing the qualified test in the catalogue of recommended models for the promotion and application of new energy vehicles. From January to April 2016, the Ministry of industry and information technology successively released three batches of enterprise directories, a total of 25.

Subsequently, China successively issued the revision opinions of the new energy vehicle access rules and the catalogue of automobile power battery product inspection standards, forming a "white list" for power battery enterprises to enjoy new energy subsidies, but there was no foreign battery enterprise in the "white list". This also caused car companies that used Samsung and LG batteries to urgently replace battery suppliers. This has dealt a fatal blow to Korean batteries and forced the suspension of investment and business in China.

Under the protection of the policy, China's power battery industry has obtained huge development space in terms of scale and technology, and a unicorn like Ningde era was born.

If Japan and South Korea get the opportunity to break the "blockade", will it bring greater competitive pressure to Chinese enterprises?

Fang Jianhua told reporters that the original policy could not be called "blockade". At that time, the Ministry of industry and information technology considered from two perspectives. One was from the perspective of safety. Buses were not suitable for ternary batteries, so Korean ternary batteries could not be included in the list. On the other hand, because subsidies are involved, the subsidy funds come from taxpayers, and government departments should supervise them.

"At that time, some restrictions were made from these two angles, and it was not clear that Korean batteries could not enter the Chinese market. I think the direction to talk to them now is that they can be used, but I personally don't think there will be a big breakthrough in whether they can enjoy subsidies." Fang Jianhua said.

On May 22, China Automobile Association and China automotive power battery industry innovation alliance jointly publicized the white list of automotive power battery and hydrogen fuel cell industry (the first batch). 21 enterprises including Shenzhen BYD, GuoXuan high tech, Guoneng battery, bick battery, Yiwei lithium energy, Penghui energy, Beijing Prader and reshaping energy were shortlisted, including Samsung Huanxin (Xi'an) Power Battery Co., Ltd., Nanjing Lejin Chemical New Energy Battery Co., Ltd. and Beijing Electronic Control aiskai Technology Co., Ltd. were selected.

Whether the Japanese and Korean power batteries will intensify the competition. Fang Jianhua said that he is very optimistic about Chinese battery enterprises. He believes that Ningde era may become the unicorn of global power batteries within a year or two.

"Through China's own development in recent years, I don't think Japan and South Korea have more advantages. Korean batteries used to compete in the Chinese market at the price as low as 1 yuan / wh, but now cost performance is China's biggest advantage," Fang Jianhua said.

Industrial trough?

Globally, China's support for electric vehicles is the highest in the world, and its output and market scale are also the largest. China's power battery shipments account for about 70% of the world.

This benefits from the complete industrial chain, and there are leading enterprises in each link. However, the development of each link has been quite different this year.

Since 2017, the price of upstream materials has continued to rise, coupled with manufacturers' hoarding, resulting in large fluctuations in the price of ternary cathode materials.

Cathode material enterprises generally transmit the pressure of raw material price rise to downstream battery enterprises, resulting in the rise of ternary battery cost.

According to the data provided by a person from China chemical and physical power industry association, as of May 2018, the price of ternary materials was about 225000-235000 yuan / ton, which increased by more than half compared with the beginning of 2017, and the cost of ternary power battery increased by more than 30%.

Meanwhile, the price of cobalt products has continued to rise since 2017. From the beginning of 2017 to May this year, the price of high-grade metal cobalt in the international market has increased by 193.1% - 202.1%, and the price of low-grade metal cobalt has increased by 194.7% - 204.2%, a record high.

However, the above-mentioned people pointed out that cobalt prices have great speculative properties. The characteristics of small metals make market expectations have a great impact on prices. In strict accordance with the relationship between supply and demand, with the application of 811, the demand for cobalt powder per GW decreases a lot. Even according to the estimated output of 2 million vehicles in 2020, if 60% of them adopt 811, the pull on cobalt powder is only 5000 tons, which is not enough to explain the performance of the stock price. Therefore, once the expectation of cobalt changes, the price will decline rapidly, which is good for the whole new energy industry chain.

Although the price of ternary materials is rising, the price of ternary power battery pack has decreased from 1.7-1.8 yuan / wh in early 2017 to 1.3-1.4 yuan / wh at present. The price of lithium iron phosphate battery pack also decreased by 21% - 22%, and it is generally believed that the price will continue to decline this year.

At the same time, many vehicle manufacturers have experienced a decline in performance. For example, BYD pointed out in its report for the first quarter of 2018 that the net profit decreased by 83.09% year-on-year, and the subsidy of Yutong Bus was greater than the net profit.

Moreover, there was also a break in the capital chain of jianruivoneng.

Bao Xiaolin, partner and President of Tuojin Capital Management Co., Ltd., said at the concurrent meeting of the 13th China International Battery show that so far, it can be said that it is a relatively low point in the new energy vehicle industry, but it is also a good time for us to increase research and judgment and investment because it is a relatively low point. In the future, the real explosion of the industry will appear in the field of passenger cars.

He pointed out that at the same time, we should be alert to the structural overcapacity of power batteries. The overall capacity construction scale of power batteries in China has been seriously ahead of schedule, and the capacity utilization rate has declined. The threshold for obtaining subsidies has been greatly increased year by year, and many production capacities have not met the requirements of high energy density.

How Can I Make My Cheese Sauce Creamier?
Sodium citrate. It's not some crazy scientific chemical, you have it in plenty of other foods. I've made and messed up a lot of mac and cheese in my day and sodium citrate is the way to go. This page is very helpful. If you don't have some on hand mix a bit of vinegar and baking soda together until they no longer react and add a bit at a time of that solution until consistency and texture is to your liking. Just be careful when using it at first because it can make your sauce seem bitter and or salty. I would not suggest using strong IPA if you're doing a beer cheese sauce - I speak from experience• Related QuestionsIf you add spices to boiling pasta, will it absorb spices/flavours?That will work only for water-soluble spices, and you will still end up pouring a lot of spices away with the water.I once took a cooking class with Bavarian chef Alfons Schuhbeck, and his recommendations were:The last point can be taken one step further by preparing a somewhat watery sauce and cooking the (raw) pasta in the sauce. It will take a bit longer than usual, and you have to develop a feeling for just how much liquid you will need (or keep and eye on the pasta and add more water as neededa bit like making risotto). However, the pasta will absorb a lot of flavor from the sauce, and no starch from the pasta will end up getting poured out with the water (it all goes into the sauce).As an additional benefit, you have only one pot to clean in the end instead of two------Why does my cookbook want me to drain my tomatoes for a pasta sauce?Draining some of the juice allows you to get to a thick sauce quickly. It may also reduce some of the acidity which may be why you prefer this recipe.The thickness of the pasta sauce goes hand-in-hand with the shape of the pasta you're making.Different pasta shapes can hold different amount of water (say fusilli vs spaghetti) and traditionally you boil down the sauce to make it thicker so the pasta can hold it. However, this can have other effects including change of colour.You can save the tomato juice and make a mean bloody-mary/ceasar with it. Throw in some worcestershire sauce, tabasco, a stick of celery and optionally a stick of dried meat (e.g. beef jerky) and it's a meal onto its own.Tomato juice is also a great hangover cure. so either way, you can save the stuff and not waste it------Sauting big batch of onionsI have not personally tried this with onions, but whenever I need to cook large batches of something (for example, bacon) and I don't have enough space on top of the stove, I try to find a way to work it in the oven.Although it's not going to be a true saute, I think you could probably achieve what you want with a few sheet pans of onions (mixed with oil) in the oven.This recipe would probably be a good guideline for time and temperature. If that doesn't sound like something you'd like to try, do you have a grill? What if you laid out a large amount of foil across the grates of your grill (put a lip on the edge, basically make an impromptu baking sheet out of foil) and do them on the grill over low to medium heat until they're the texture you want?------I'm tweaking a Lasagna BologneseThe thing about lasagna is that it really only needs to be heated through. All of the components (pasta, the sauce or sauces, the cheeses) are already cooked, or don't need to be cooked.So baking the whole lasagna heats it through and helps the flavors to meld. A 4" thickness not tremendously thicker than some more traditionally proportioned lasagnas, so you should expect it to bake through in about the same time any casserole of that thickness would require. I would start at about 325-350 degrees, for about 1 hour to maybe 1:15. You may need to leave it covered for most of the baking period so that the top doesn't overly brown or dry out.In the end, you can test the casserole with an instant read. It should probably get up to about 150 or 160 F internally to be enjoyableLasagna should be very forgiving------Why is the pasta often cooked in the sauce in al'arrabiata recipes?While Italian cuisine is defined regionally, the majority of Italian pasta dishes have one cook the pasta until almost done, then finish in the condiment. While there are exceptions that include thick, long cooked sauces like Bolognese or sugos, finishing in the condiment serves several purposes: (a) the pasta and the condiment can be combined, (b) the pasta finishes cooking, (c) it absorbs the flavor of the condiment, and (d) the condiment (sauce) thickens and emulsifies from the addition of the starchy pasta cooking water (this can be controlled by adding cooking water and/or allowing it to cook off). Yes, it is more difficult than cooking separately, and it can be a little nuanced, but it is not very technical. With a bit of practice, I think you will find this step worth it------Which is a typically American way of seasoning spaghetti and other pasta?The most common preparation is tomato sauce and parmesan cheese.Of course, some Americans will tell you that the only truly American way to eat spaghetti is to top it with chili, then shredded cheddar cheese, then chopped onions, then red kidney beans. It's hard to fully express the majesty of this dish, and should only be enjoyed on special occasions, like the Super Bowl.In Canada (which I consider to be basically "American"), it's also fairly common to add or replace the tomato sauce with pesto sauce. Soft goat cheese is another common additive. Perhaps these sound "Italian" but I'd consider an Italian pasta to be something more like a bolognese, carbonara, alfredo, or even the trusty old butter/olive oil and parmesan cheese. You'll almost never see tomato sauce combined with pesto sauce in an authentic Italian restaurant (or in Italy), but it's common in American home cooking------Why do beverages taste different based on how cold they are? closedI think the question is too general to give any terribly useful answer.Most of what we consider taste is actually smell i.e. it's the detection of volatile chemicals from the food in the nose. The volatility of many chemicals found in food changes a lot over the 0C to body temperature range, and this would have a big effect on taste.Many foods contain fat and this melts over the zero to body temp range. This probably affects texture more than taste, but it may also affect volatiles dissolved in the fat. A good example is to try and eat pasta sauce straight from the fridge. If the sauce contains any appreciable amount of fat it usually tastes disgusting :-)------What can be used as a substitute for tomato sauce in typical italian dishes?A big component of pizza sauce has nothing to do with tomatoes per se. Break down the components and consider alternatives.Water: Yup, tomatoes are just wet, so you'll need some liquid.Sugar: Tomatoes are naturally sweet, so you'll need some sugar/honeyAcid: This is huge, but easily fudged with vinegar or lemon juiceSeasonings: As much onion (powder), garlic (powder), salt, pepper, basil, oregano, parsley as you wantDepth: This is the tricky part, that rich, almost smoky quality of cooked tomatoes. It won't be easy to replace. Darin's answer probably comes closest with a similarly colored pepper cooked with direct heat. To expand on that, I think you could venture into other peppers besides just red bell, maybe some mexican low-heat varieties, a little chipotle, perhaps?.------How to prevent watery spaghetti squashIf you're plating with a harm to hot sauce, your squash will cook further; try removing the squash and shredding it 5-10 minutes earlier than you normally would, and allow the shreds to rest until they've cooled to room temp; the heat from the sauce will finish the cooking process, and warm them up again.This is similar to adding slightly undercooked noodles to a sauce while it's still cooking, but better suited to something as delicate as spaghetti squash.Oh, one more tip; when roasting your squash, start with the cut sides facing down to steam it, then flip them facing up with a bit of water in your roasting pan for the remainder of the time; it cooks the squash all the way through, but also gives it a great roasted flavor from the outside layer of flesh.------How well does it work to just throw in all the ingredients and boil?Ah, One Pot Pasta....As loads of bloggers, authors and cooks - possibly inspired by Martha Stewart and her team - have confirmed: dumping the pasta, sauce ingredients and a carefully meassured amount of liquid in one pot or pan will give you a "pasta and sauce" dish in ten to fifteen minutes.And it works. Sort of. Your instinct matches my experience: when you omit the sauting or slow roasting of ingredients you are missing the flavour compounds that this step creates, likewise if your recipe stews the sauce for a long time. So while all ingredients in one pot pasta will be cooked, due to cutting everything to the appropriate size, the flavour will be different from what your traditional method creates. If you expect one pot pasta to taste like your traditional recipe, you will probably be disappointed. If you are simply aiming for a creative, hassle-free quick dish, go for it------Why isn't pasta water salted in Chinese cuisine?I would say it's because the sauces are salty on their own so you don't need to "coat" the noodle in salt for taste while boiling. As (correct me if I'm wrong) in Asian cuisine the noodles are rather neutral in taste absorb spices from fat in sauce. The increased boiling point for salted water, in my opinion, is only usable when making thick noodles or ones that carry on room temperature. So putting them in boiling water won't lower the temperature below 90C degrees (if the water is salted and have temp over 100C). Third thing are eggs. It's a mix of two previous ones, so you need the salt to bring the flavour of the egg noodles and be sure you boil them in high temperature to cook the eggs------Why add salt to the water when cooking pasta?I am really surprised that there was no answer above relating to the simple fact that adding even half a teaspoon salt to the boiling water serves this purpose:That's also why I have stopped rinsing the boiled noodles, which washes off and leaches out more vitamins down the sink-drain.If you drain noodles after boiling and don't want them to stick together, just run a Stick of butter very fast through the whole batch, which immediately improves the flavor, or put your thumb almost totally over the top of a bottle of first-pressed olive oil, and sprinkle a teaspoon or so over that batch of noodles and stir fast.I have thereby never had any problems of sticky lumps, when stored in the refrigerator, and I have preserved a better level of nutrition.------How should one go about reheating pasta?I've steamed my pasta -- in fact, it's how I reheated pasta during my years of living without a microwave.The important part is to not overcook the pasta in the first go through -- pull it when it's al-dente; I'd also toss in some oil or butter so the pasta wouldn't stick together, as you want the pasta loose in the steamer, not a giant glob of fused pasta.I'd get it most of the way heated through, and then finish it in the sauce. On days I was lazy, if it wasn't a really thick pasta, I'd just heat up the sauce, and put the pasta in for a minute or less to reheat. The important part was that the pasta was oiled so it wasn't a giant lump, and the sauce could get in there to heat the pasta up
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